رویکرد اروپا به منازعه یمن؛ از هنجارگرایی به عملگرایی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

کارشناس مسائل اروپا

10.29252/piaj.2021.214657.0

چکیده

مواجهــه متناقــض اتحادیــه اروپــا و کشــورهای اروپایــی بــا بحــران یمــن پرســش های متعــددی را در رابطــه بــا اصــل راهنمــای سیاســت خارجــی ایــن اتحادیــه و همچنیــن، رویکـرد اروپـا بـه حـل منازعـات مطـرح کـرده اسـت. تاکیـد لفظـی اتحادیـه )و دولت های اروپایـی( بـر ایفـای نقشـی میانجیگرانـه از یـک سـو و پیگیـری منافـع عملگرایانـه تجـاری و اقتصـادی در سـوی دیگـر، شناسـایی ایـن اصـل را پیچیده تـر کـرده اسـت. در ایـن راسـتا، مقالـه پیـش رو بـا بهـره گیـری از ادبیـات نظـری مطـرح شـده در سـند اسـتراتژی جهانـی ایــن اتحادیــه و تاکیــد بــر دو مفهــوم »مقــاوم ســازی« و »عملگرایــی مبتنــی بــر اصــول« در ایـن سـند، بـه بررسـی سیاسـت اتحادیـه )و دولت هـای عضـو( در قبـال بحـران یمـن پرداختـه اسـت. بررسـی اسـناد و سیاسـت های اعمالـی و همچنیـن، رجـوع بـه آمارهـای موجــود نشــان از کــم رنــگ بــودن نقــش هنجارهــا و ارزش هــای اروپایــی در سیاســت اتحادیه اروپـا در قبـال یمـن و غلبـه عنصـر عملگرایـی در ایـن سیاسـت می دهـد. نظـر بـه نقـش و اهمیـت ایـران در حـل بحـران یمـن، اروپـا تـالش کـرده تـا از اهـرم نفـوذ تهـران به منظـور تاثیرگـذاری بـر حوثی هـا اسـتفاده کنـد. لـذا هرچنـد رویکـرد اروپـا درقبـال بحـران یمــن متشــتت، ثانویــه و در مــوارد متعــددی در تضــاد بــا سیاســت های منطقــه ای ایــران اسـت، امـا فرصت هـای متعـددی بـرای ایـران جهـت حـل بحـران یمـن در همـکاری بـا اروپـا وجـود دارد کـه در ایـن مقالـه بـه آنهـا پرداختـه شـده اسـت.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Europe and its key actors in the Yemeni crisis; from normativism to pragmatism

نویسندگان [English]

  • Behzad Ahmadi Lafouraki
  • Sohrab Sadoddin
Expert of EU foreign policy
چکیده [English]

The contradictory policy of the European Union and European countries towards the crisis in Yemen has raised many questions regarding the principle guide of the EU's foreign policy as well as the European approach to conflict resolution. The rhetoric of the Union (and European governments) on playing a mediating role on the one hand and the pursuit of pragmatic trade and economic interests on the other hand, has made the recognition of this principle more complex. In this regard, the present article examines the policy of the Union (and the governments) by using the theoretical literature presented in EU global strategy and by emphasizing the two concepts of "resilience" and "principled pragmatism" in this document. Accordingly, an examination of the documents and policies implemented, as well as a reference to the available statistics, shows the weak role of European norms and values in the EU policy towards Yemen and the dominance of the pragmatic element in this policy. Given Iran's role and importance in resolving the Yemeni crisis, Europe has sought to use Iranian leverage to influence the Houthis. Thus, although Europe's approach to the Yemeni crisis is fragmented, secondary, and in many cases at odds with Iran's regional policies, but there are several opportunities for Iran to resolve the Yemeni crisis in cooperation with Europe, which are addressed in this article

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • European Union
  • Yemen
  • Normativism
  • Pragmatism
  • conflict
  • Iran
 
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Durac, V. (2010). The European Union in Yemen: The Triumph of Pragmatism over Normativity? European Foreign Affairs Review, 15(5), 645–661.
Fact Sheets on the European Union - GULF COUNTRIES, IRAN, IRAQ AND YEMEN, European parliament, 2020.
Giusti, Serena (2020), the European Union Global Strategy and the EU's Maieutic Role, Journal of Common Market Studies: 1-17.
Gurol, Julia (2020), The Role of the EU and China in the Security Architecture of the Middle East, Asian Journal of Middle Eastern and Islamic Studies:1-18.
Joost, Hiltermann (2019), Why the EU Should Care About Yemen, INTERNATIONAL CRISIS GROUP.
Juncos, Anna (2017). Resilience as the new EU foreign policy paradigm: a pragmatist turn? Journal of European Security: 1-19.
Lackner, H. (2017). Yemen in Crisis: Autocracy, Neo-Liberalism and the Disintegration of a State. London: Saqi.
Laurent Bonnefoy (2020), The European Union’s Role in the Yemen Crisis, in S. W. Day, N. Brehony (eds.), Global, Regional, and Local Dynamics in the Yemen Crisis, Palgrave Macmillan.
Maletta, G. (2019) Legal Challenges to EU Member States’ Arms Exports toSaudi Arabia: Current Status and Potential Implications, Stockholm: International Peace Research Institute Backgrounders.
al-Muslimi, F., & al-Akhali, R. (2018, June 27). La France est la candidate parfait pour mettre fin à la guerre du Yémen. Le Monde. https://www.lemonde.fr/ idees/article/2018/06/27/la-france-peut-jouer-un-role-decisif-pour-mettrefin-a-la-guerre-du-yemen_5321764_3232.html
Palik, Julia (2018), The EU's Civil War: Mediation Practices in Yemen: The Case of Competetive Mediator Market, GROTIUS.
Patryk, Pawlak (2015), Yemen: in asecurity vacuum, European Parliamentary Research Service.
Poiret, A. (2019),Mon pays vend des armes, Paris: Arènes.
UK arms sales to Saudi Arabia unlawful, court of appeal declares, the guardian, 2019. https://www.theguardian.com/law/2019/jun/20/uk-arms-sales-to-saudi-arabia-for-use-in-yemen-declared-unlawful
Snyder, J. and Vinjamuri, L. (2012), Principled pragmatism and the logic of consequences, International theory: 434–448.
منابع اینترنتی
https://www.mei.edu/publications/stockholm-riyadh-breaking-yemen-peace-process-deadlock
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Ahmed A. Saif (2015), YEMEN IN CRISIS: WHAT ROLE FOR THE EU? European Parliament's Committee on Foreign Affairs.
Bianco, Cinzia (2020), A GULF APART: HOW EUROPE CAN GAIN INFLUENCE WITH THE GULF COOPERATION COUNCIL, Brussels: ECFR.
Council of the EU,Council conclusions on Yemen,6179/19, 18 February 2019.
Dudouet et Al (2020), From Policy to action: Assessing the European Union's Approach to Inclusive Mediation and Dialogue support in Georgia and Yemen, Conflict resolution Research program, Berlin: Berghof Foundation.
Day, Stephen and Noel Brehony (2020), Global, regional and Local Dynamics in the Yemen Crisis, New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Durac, V. (2010). The European Union in Yemen: The Triumph of Pragmatism over Normativity? European Foreign Affairs Review, 15(5), 645–661.
Fact Sheets on the European Union - GULF COUNTRIES, IRAN, IRAQ AND YEMEN, European parliament, 2020.
Giusti, Serena (2020), the European Union Global Strategy and the EU's Maieutic Role, Journal of Common Market Studies: 1-17.
Gurol, Julia (2020), The Role of the EU and China in the Security Architecture of the Middle East, Asian Journal of Middle Eastern and Islamic Studies:1-18.
Joost, Hiltermann (2019), Why the EU Should Care About Yemen, INTERNATIONAL CRISIS GROUP.
Juncos, Anna (2017). Resilience as the new EU foreign policy paradigm: a pragmatist turn? Journal of European Security: 1-19.
Lackner, H. (2017). Yemen in Crisis: Autocracy, Neo-Liberalism and the Disintegration of a State. London: Saqi.
Laurent Bonnefoy (2020), The European Union’s Role in the Yemen Crisis, in S. W. Day, N. Brehony (eds.), Global, Regional, and Local Dynamics in the Yemen Crisis, Palgrave Macmillan.
Maletta, G. (2019) Legal Challenges to EU Member States’ Arms Exports toSaudi Arabia: Current Status and Potential Implications, Stockholm: International Peace Research Institute Backgrounders.
al-Muslimi, F., & al-Akhali, R. (2018, June 27). La France est la candidate parfait pour mettre fin à la guerre du Yémen. Le Monde. https://www.lemonde.fr/ idees/article/2018/06/27/la-france-peut-jouer-un-role-decisif-pour-mettrefin-a-la-guerre-du-yemen_5321764_3232.html
Palik, Julia (2018), The EU's Civil War: Mediation Practices in Yemen: The Case of Competetive Mediator Market, GROTIUS.
Patryk, Pawlak (2015), Yemen: in asecurity vacuum, European Parliamentary Research Service.
Poiret, A. (2019),Mon pays vend des armes, Paris: Arènes.
UK arms sales to Saudi Arabia unlawful, court of appeal declares, the guardian, 2019. https://www.theguardian.com/law/2019/jun/20/uk-arms-sales-to-saudi-arabia-for-use-in-yemen-declared-unlawful
Snyder, J. and Vinjamuri, L. (2012), Principled pragmatism and the logic of consequences, International theory: 434–448.
منابع اینترنتی
https://www.mei.edu/publications/stockholm-riyadh-breaking-yemen-peace-process-deadlock
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Ahmed A. Saif (2015), YEMEN IN CRISIS: WHAT ROLE FOR THE EU? European Parliament's Committee on Foreign Affairs.
Bianco, Cinzia (2020), A GULF APART: HOW EUROPE CAN GAIN INFLUENCE WITH THE GULF COOPERATION COUNCIL, Brussels: ECFR.
Council of the EU,Council conclusions on Yemen,6179/19, 18 February 2019.
Dudouet et Al (2020), From Policy to action: Assessing the European Union's Approach to Inclusive Mediation and Dialogue support in Georgia and Yemen, Conflict resolution Research program, Berlin: Berghof Foundation.
Day, Stephen and Noel Brehony (2020), Global, regional and Local Dynamics in the Yemen Crisis, New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Durac, V. (2010). The European Union in Yemen: The Triumph of Pragmatism over Normativity? European Foreign Affairs Review, 15(5), 645–661.
Fact Sheets on the European Union - GULF COUNTRIES, IRAN, IRAQ AND YEMEN, European parliament, 2020.
Giusti, Serena (2020), the European Union Global Strategy and the EU's Maieutic Role, Journal of Common Market Studies: 1-17.
Gurol, Julia (2020), The Role of the EU and China in the Security Architecture of the Middle East, Asian Journal of Middle Eastern and Islamic Studies:1-18.
Joost, Hiltermann (2019), Why the EU Should Care About Yemen, INTERNATIONAL CRISIS GROUP.
Juncos, Anna (2017). Resilience as the new EU foreign policy paradigm: a pragmatist turn? Journal of European Security: 1-19.
Lackner, H. (2017). Yemen in Crisis: Autocracy, Neo-Liberalism and the Disintegration of a State. London: Saqi.
Laurent Bonnefoy (2020), The European Union’s Role in the Yemen Crisis, in S. W. Day, N. Brehony (eds.), Global, Regional, and Local Dynamics in the Yemen Crisis, Palgrave Macmillan.
Maletta, G. (2019) Legal Challenges to EU Member States’ Arms Exports toSaudi Arabia: Current Status and Potential Implications, Stockholm: International Peace Research Institute Backgrounders.
al-Muslimi, F., & al-Akhali, R. (2018, June 27). La France est la candidate parfait pour mettre fin à la guerre du Yémen. Le Monde. https://www.lemonde.fr/ idees/article/2018/06/27/la-france-peut-jouer-un-role-decisif-pour-mettrefin-a-la-guerre-du-yemen_5321764_3232.html
Palik, Julia (2018), The EU's Civil War: Mediation Practices in Yemen: The Case of Competetive Mediator Market, GROTIUS.
Patryk, Pawlak (2015), Yemen: in asecurity vacuum, European Parliamentary Research Service.
Poiret, A. (2019),Mon pays vend des armes, Paris: Arènes.
UK arms sales to Saudi Arabia unlawful, court of appeal declares, the guardian, 2019. https://www.theguardian.com/law/2019/jun/20/uk-arms-sales-to-saudi-arabia-for-use-in-yemen-declared-unlawful
Snyder, J. and Vinjamuri, L. (2012), Principled pragmatism and the logic of consequences, International theory: 434–448.
منابع اینترنتی
https://www.mei.edu/publications/stockholm-riyadh-breaking-yemen-peace-process-deadlock