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درآمدی بر مفهوم حکمرانی شبکه‌ای؛ مطلوبیت‌ها و چالش‌ها

چکیده

«حکمرانی شبکه‌ای» هم به عنوان استعاره‌ای برای توصیف رشد مسایل پیچیده، مجزاشدن فزاینده جامعه و پلی برای عبور از مرزهای بخشی به کار رفته و هم به عنوان پاسخی از سوی سیاستگذاران به پویایی تعاملات محیط تغییر یافته سیاستی عمل می‌کند. این پژوهش قصد دارد تا با بررسی مفهوم حکمرانی شبکه‌ای و کارکردهای آن، به بیان مزیت‌ها و مطلوبیت آن به عنوان یک رویکرد تحلیلی برای توصیف و تبیین سیاست‌های عمومی و عملکرد دولت بپردازد. به این منظور ضمن معرفی سه شکل عام و کلاسیک حکمرانی یعنی سلسله مراتب، بازار و شبکه؛ ویژگی‌های هر یک را برشمرده و در نهایت مطلوبیت‌های شکل شبکه‌ای حکمرانی بیان می‌شود. چارچوب حکمرانی شبکه‌ای پذیرفته است که سیاست‌های عمومی دیگر تنها بوسیله دولت تدوین نمی‌شوند بلکه شبکه‌ای از ارتباطات میان بازیگران مختلف مانند سیاستمداران، بوروکرات‌ها، شرکت‌های خصوصی، گروه‌های فشار و شهروندان تعیین‌کننده آنها هستند. البته حکمرانی شبکه‌ای با چالش‌هایی همچون مدیریت مطلوب شبکه، دموکراتیک بودن، پاسخگویی و تنظیم ارتباطات روبه‌رو است. این پژوهش با معرفی چارچوب‌هایی مثل فراحکمرانی و استراتژی‌های ترکیبی هدایت و خودتنظیمی، راهکارهایی برای رویارویی با این چالش‌ها معرفی می‌کند.

واژگان کلیدی
حکمرانی شبکه‌ای، فراحکمرانی، خودتنظیمی، هدایت‌گری، دموکراسی، مدیریت شبکه

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